Gladiolus fourcadei

Taxonomy
Scientific Name
Gladiolus fourcadei (L.Bolus) Goldblatt & M.P.de Vos
Higher Classification
Monocotyledons
Family
IRIDACEAE
Synonyms
Antholyza fourcadei L.Bolus, Homoglossum fourcadei (L.Bolus) N.E.Br.
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
2015/11/06
Assessor(s)
L. von Staden & D. Turner
Justification
EOO 3109 km², plants at four remaining locations continue to decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.
Distribution
Endemism
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Western Cape
Range
Uniondale to George and Knysna.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Terrestrial
Major habitats
Langkloof Shale Renosterveld, Uniondale Shale Renosterveld, Tsitsikamma Sandstone Fynbos, South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, Garden Route Shale Fynbos, Knysna Sand Fynbos, Eastern Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Central Inland Shale Band Vegetation, Garden Route Granite Fynbos
Description
Fynbos, heavy soils either clay or loam at the sandstone-shale transition, often near streams.
Threats
Gladiolus fourcadei has declined extensively due to habitat loss to agricultural expansion in the Langkloof, as well as overgrazing and degradation of remaining fynbos fragments on lower slopes. On the southern side of the Outeniqua Mountains, it has lost nearly all of its habitat to timber plantations, crop fields and urban expansion. It continues to decline due to ongoing habitat loss to urban expansion, competition from alien invasive plants, inappropriate fire management and overgrazing.
Population

This species is known from a large number of historical records from the Langkloof between Uniondale and Knysna, where field surveys indicated that it had become locally extinct due to habitat loss and degradation. It was known from a single surviving subpopulation in the Kammanassie Mountain, where field surveys recently recorded a few more localized colonies along high altitude shale bands. It has also been recently found along the southern foothills of the Outeniqua Mountains between George and Knysna, where it has lost extensive habitat, and all known subpopulations occur in small fynbos remnants. The largest subpopulation consists of about 200 mature individuals occurring in a site earmarked for development.


Population trend
Decreasing
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Gladiolus fourcadei (L.Bolus) Goldblatt & M.P.de VosCR B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Gladiolus fourcadei (L.Bolus) Goldblatt & M.P.de VosVulnerable Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Bibliography

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 1998. Gladiolus in southern Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg.


Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.


Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.


Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.


Citation
von Staden, L. & Turner, D. 2015. Gladiolus fourcadei (L.Bolus) Goldblatt & M.P.de Vos. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2017.1. Accessed on 2017/03/27

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© Outramps


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