Scientific Name
Syncolostemon ramosus (Codd) D.F.Otieno
Higher Classification
Hemizygia ramosa Codd
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable D2
Assessment Date
L. von Staden & H. Mtshali
A highly range-restricted and poorly known species, occurring at two locations and potentially threatened by habitat degradation due to overgrazing.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Southern end of the Lebombo Mountains near Mkuze.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Southern Lebombo Bushveld
Shallow soil among rocks in open and closed woodland.
A large proportion of this species' habitat is protected within the Mkuze Game Reserve and Umbombo Mountain Nature Reserve. Outside protected areas, there are some parts of the Lebombo Mountains that are affected by heavy overgrazing, which has resulted in a loss of vegetation cover and erosion in places.

Syncolostemon ramosus is a highly localized species and is known from only three collections. It was last recorded in 1984. There are currently two known locations, but it is likely that more exist as its habitat has not been fully explored. The current population trend is not known, and field surveys are needed to determine whether grazing has a negative impact on the population.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Syncolostemon ramosus (Codd) D.F.OtienoVU D22017.1
Syncolostemon ramosus (Codd) D.F.OtienoData Deficient Raimondo et al. (2009)
Hemizygia ramosa CoddData Deficient Scott-Shaw (1999)
Syncolostemon ramosus (Codd) D.F.OtienoIndeterminate Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Hemizygia ramosa CoddIndeterminate Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Codd, L.E. 1976. The South African species of Hemizygia (Lamiaceae). Bothalia 12(1):1-20.

Codd, L.E. 1985. Lamiaceae. In: O.A. Leistner (ed). Flora of Southern Africa 28 Part 4:1-240. Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Otieno, D.F. 2004. Taxonomic delimitation, phylogeny and biogeography of Hemizygia and Syncolostemon (Ocimeae - Labiatae). Unpublished PhD, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

Otieno, D.F., Balkwill, K., Paton, A.J. and Savolainen, V. 2006. A reassessment of Hemizygia and Syncolostemon (Ocimeae-Lamiaceae). Taxon 55:941-958.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and threatened plants of KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service, Pietermaritzburg.

von Staden, L. & Mtshali, H. 2017. Syncolostemon ramosus (Codd) D.F.Otieno. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2020/07/03

Comment on this assessment Comment on this assessment
Distribution map

Search for images of Syncolostemon ramosus on iNaturalist