Scientific Name
Chrysocoma esterhuyseniae Ehr.Bayer
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A2bc; C2a(ii)
Assessment Date
N.A. Helme & D. Raimondo
EOO <24 km², with only two extant subpopulations known. This long-lived resprouter's EOO has been reduced by 97% due to habitat loss to crop cultivation, urban development and severe infestations of alien plants in the past 90 years, and it is now locally extinct at more than 80% of recorded locations. Generation length is estimated to be ± 50 years. There are fewer than 200 individuals recorded for the population, of which 90% occurs at Riverlands Nature Reserve. Both remaining subpopulations are declining due to habitat degradation due to invasion by alien acacias.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Hopefield to Melkbosstrand.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Atlantis Sand Fynbos, Hopefield Sand Fynbos
Acid lowland sands.
Agriculture is a severe past threat, more than 80% of this species' habitat has been transformed for pasture and crop cultivation. Urban expansion is a past threat in the form of smallholdings around Mamre and Atlantis. Invasive alien plant infestations are a severe ongoing threat.

Ninety percent of the population occurs in Riverlands Nature Reserve. The number of mature individuals in Riverlands is estimated to be 100, these occur as scattered localized stands. The subpopulation south of Hopefield has only nine plants.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Chrysocoma esterhuyseniae Ehr.BayerCR A2bc; B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Chrysocoma esterhuyseniae Ehr.BayerVU D2Victor (2002)
Chrysocoma esterhuyseniae Ehr.BayerInsufficiently Known Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Bayer, E. 1981. Revision der Gattung Chrysocoma L. (Asteraceae-Astereae). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 17:259-392.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Helme, N.A. & Raimondo, D. 2011. Chrysocoma esterhuyseniae Ehr.Bayer. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2024/02/24

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Distribution map

© N.A. Helme

© R. Koopman

© R. Koopman

© I. Ebrahim

© I. Ebrahim

© I. Ebrahim

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