Scientific Name
Relhania rotundifolia Less.
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
Assessment Date
D. Raimondo & N.A. Helme
EOO 43 km², known from two locations. This species has lost 50% of its recorded locations and over 80% of its former habitat to crop cultivation and severe alien plant infestations. Subpopulations are not considered severely fragmented as over 90% of the population occurs in Riverlands Nature Reserve. Both the subpopulation at Riverlands and the one south of Hopefield are experiencing continuing decline in habitat quality as a result of encroachment from invasive alien acacias and inappropriate fire management.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Malmesbury to Hopefield.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Atlantis Sand Fynbos, Hopefield Sand Fynbos
Seasonally wet, sandy flats, 100-150 m.
Crop cultivation in combination with dense infestations of alien plants have led to two of the four known subpopulations going extinct. The subpopulation at Hopefield is threatened by invasive alien acacias. The subpopulation at Riverlands, particularly stands on the western reserve boundary are also threatened by invasive aliens. Too frequent fires are a potential threat to the largest subpopulation at Riverlands.

This species was reduced to a single population because of destruction of its habitat. It was thought to be extinct after 1932 until its rediscovery in 1978 at Riverlands Nature Reserve. The recent discovery by N. Helme of a subpopulation near Hopefield provides hope that there may still be other small remaining subpopulations occurring in remnant lowland sand fynbos between Hopefield and Riverlands. The Riverlands subpopulation consists of a number of stands of individuals numbering at least 1 000. The Hopefield subpopulation is much smaller, with only 40 individuals.

Population trend
Riverlands Nature Reserve.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Relhania rotundifolia Less.CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Relhania rotundifolia Less.Endangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Relhania rotundifolia Less.Endangered Hall et al. (1980)

Bremer, K. 1976. The genus Relhania (Compositae). Opera Botanica 40:1-85.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D. & Helme, N.A. 2011. Relhania rotundifolia Less. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/09/21

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Distribution map

© C. Burgers

© I. Ebrahim

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