Scientific Name
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell
Higher Classification
Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettst. as 'monniera', Gratiola monnieria L., Herpestis africana (Pers.) Steud., Herpestis monnieria (L.) Kunth, Lysimachia monnieri L., Monniera africana Pers., Monniera calycina (Forssk.) Kuntze as 'Monniera', Monniera cuneifolia Michx., Hiern (1904) as 'Moniera' (in part), excluding Herpestis crenata P.Beauv.
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
H. Mtshali, P.F. Matlamela & D.A. Kamundi
Bacopa monnieri is a widespread and common species, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 24 037 km². It is threatened by competition from invasive plants and coastal development, but not yet suspected to be in danger of extinction.
Not endemic to South Africa
Provincial distribution
This species occurs along the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast, from Durban to Maputaland. It also occurs in Mozambique.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
It occurs in marshy places, on the banks of pools, along streams and ditches, and occasionally submerged in water with low salinity.
Habitat loss to coastal development and competition from alien invasive plants are likely to be causing ongoing population declines.

Field observations indicate that this species is common, and it is suspected to occur at more than 10 locations. It is likely to be declining due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation, and monitoring is needed.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Bacopa monnieri (L.) PennellLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Cook, C.D.K. 2004. Aquatic and wetland plants of southern Africa. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Philcox, D. 1990. Scrophulariaceae. In: E. Launert and G.V. Pope (eds). Flora Zambesiaca 8 (Part 2):1-179. Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee, London.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Sieben, E.J.J. 2009. The status and distribution of vascular plants (Magnoliophyta, Lycophyta, Pteridophyta). In: W.R.T. Darwall, K.G. Smith, D. Tweddle and P. Skelton (eds.), The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in southern Africa (pp. 83-98), IUCN and SAIAB, Gland, Switzerland and Grahamstown, South Africa.

Mtshali, H., Matlamela, P.F. & Kamundi, D.A. 2018. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/12/02

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Distribution map

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