Scientific Name
Conophytum regale Lavis
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(v)+2ab(v)
Assessment Date
A.J. Young & D. Raimondo
A range restricted habitat specialist to the Namaqualand region of the Northern Cape, South Africa. It is known to occur at one site in an area of under 1 km² and with a population size of fewer than 500 mature individuals. Based on the IUCN Red List Guidelines it has an extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) of 4 km². It is declining due to illegal plant collecting. It therefore qualifies as Critically Endangered under criterion B.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape
Springbok, Northern Cape South Africa.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Namaqualand Klipkoppe Shrubland
Cracks and crevices on quartz boulders.
The main threat to this species is illegal plant collecting. The site is very accessible, close to the main road. Local reports from Springbok have suggested that collecting has taken place between 2010 and 2015. With the significant increases in Conophytums taking place across South Africa's Northern Cape region since March 2019 it is assumed that this population is continuing to decline.

There is a single known subpopulation of less than 500 mature individuals. There is ongoing decline of population due to illegal collection.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Conophytum regale LavisCR B1ab(v)+2ab(v)2017.1
Conophytum regale LavisCritically Rare Raimondo et al. (2009)
Conophytum regale LavisLower Risk - Near Threatened Victor (2002)
Conophytum regale LavisRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Bolus, H.M.L. 1928-1935. Notes on Mesembrianthemum and allied genera. Part II. Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.

Hammer, S. 2002. Dumpling and his wife: New view of the genus Conophytum. EAE Creative Colour, Norwich.

Hammer, S.A. 1993. The genus Conophytum: A conograph. Succulent Plant Publications, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Snijman, D.A. 2013. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 2: The extra Cape flora. Strelitzia 30. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Young, A.J. & Raimondo, D. 2020. Conophytum regale Lavis. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2020/07/09

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Distribution map

© A.J. Young

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