Scientific Name
Conophytum caroli Lavis
Higher Classification
Conophytum singulare G.D.Rowley, Ophthalmophyllum australe L.Bolus, Ophthalmophyllum caroli (Lavis) Tischer
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable D1+2
Assessment Date
A.J. Young
A range-restricted species (EOO <200 km²) currently known from three subpopulations, one of which is potentially threatened by habitat loss and degradation due to road construction and maintenance. The population is estimated to number fewer than 1000 mature individuals, but is not currently declining.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape, Western Cape
Kliprand near Loeriesfontein.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Platbakkies Succulent Shrubland, Namaqualand Blomveld
Calcrete outcrops in succulent karoo.
One small subpopulation is potentially threatened by road maintenance or construction - it is extremely localized to a calcrete outcrop adjacent to an existing road. It is not known whether plants have already been lost.

Two disjunct subpopulations consist of 50-100 individuals each, and a third subpopulation is much larger, consisting of about 500 mature individuals. This species is localized to calcrete outcrops, and its habitat still remains relatively poorly explored. It is possibly more widespread and common than currently known.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Conophytum caroli LavisVU D1+22017.1
Conophytum caroli LavisRare Raimondo et al. (2009)
Conophytum caroli LavisNot Threatened Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Ophthalmophyllum australe L.BolusIndeterminate Hall et al. (1980)

Bolus, H.M.L. 1928-1935. Notes on Mesembrianthemum and allied genera. Part II. Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hammer, S. 2002. Dumpling and his wife: New view of the genus Conophytum. EAE Creative Colour, Norwich.

Hammer, S.A. 1993. The genus Conophytum: A conograph. Succulent Plant Publications, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Snijman, D.A. 2013. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 2: The extra Cape flora. Strelitzia 30. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Young, A.J. 2015. Conophytum caroli Lavis. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2020/07/09

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Distribution map

© A.J. Young

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