Scientific Name
Conophytum brunneum S.A.Hammer
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable D2
Assessment Date
A.J. Young
This is a localized species to the Northern Cape, South Africa, with all known subpopulations occurring within and area of 1.33 km². Based on the IUCN guidelines this species has an extent occurrence (EOO) and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 8 km². While highly localised it is abundant where it occurs. This species is potentially threatened by overgrazing and trampling from livestock and by illegal harvesting for the specialist succulent horticultural trade. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable under criterion D2.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
North-eastern Knersvlakte.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Southern Namaqualand Quartzite Klipkoppe Shrubland
Partially shaded, west-facing quartzitic or sandstone slopes.
Plants occur on land that is used for livestock grazing. Habitat degradation as well as trampling is a potential threat. It is an unusual species which is increasingly popular in cultivation and in demand by collectors. Collection is a potential threat to the single small and highly localised population that occurs close to human habitation.

Plants occur in scattered clumps on hills across two adjacent farms. It is locally abundant in suitable habitat. There are four known subpopulations, and each consists of more than 2000 plants.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Conophytum brunneum S.A.HammerVU D22017.1
Conophytum brunneum S.A.HammerLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Hammer, S. 2002. Dumpling and his wife: New view of the genus Conophytum. EAE Creative Colour, Norwich.

Hartmann, H.E.K. 2002. Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Aizoaceae A-E. Springer, Berlin.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Snijman, D.A. 2013. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 2: The extra Cape flora. Strelitzia 30. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Wagner, G. 2002. Conophytum brunneum S.A. Hammer spec. nov. Mesemb Study Group Bulletin 17(2):26-27.

Young, A.J. 2020. Conophytum brunneum S.A.Hammer. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2020/07/03

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Distribution map

© A.J. Young

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