Kalahari Water-grass

Scientific Name
Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase
Higher Classification
Panicum pyramidale Lam., Panicum pyramidale Lam. var. hebetatum Stapf, Panicum pyramidale Lam. var. spadiceum Peter
Common Names
Antelope Grass (e), Kalahari Water-grass (e), Limpopo Gras (a), Limpopo Grass (e), Limpopogras (a), Olifantsgras (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
H. Mtshali, L. Fish & J.E. Victor
Echinochloa pyramidalis is widespread, common and not in danger of extinction.
Not endemic to South Africa
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga
This species is widespread across tropical Africa, extending to eastern South Africa, where it is most common in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Lowveld, southwards through eastern eSwatini (Swaziland) to the KwaZulu-Natal coast. Scattered, isolated subpopulations have been recorded elsewhere in South Africa.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Fynbos, Grassland, Indian Ocean Coastal Belt, Savanna
It grows in swamps and riversides, usually standing in water and sometimes floating.
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & ChaseLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Clayton, W.D. 1989. Gramineae. In: E. Launert and G.V. Pope (eds). Flora Zambesiaca 10 (Part 3):1-220. Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee, London.

Cook, C.D.K. 2004. Aquatic and wetland plants of southern Africa. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Fish, L., Mashau, A.C., Moeaha, M.J. and Nembudani, M.T. 2015. Identification guide to southern African grasses. Strelitzia 36. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Sieben, E.J.J. 2009. The status and distribution of vascular plants (Magnoliophyta, Lycophyta, Pteridophyta). In: W.R.T. Darwall, K.G. Smith, D. Tweddle and P. Skelton (eds.), The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in southern Africa (pp. 83-98), IUCN and SAIAB, Gland, Switzerland and Grahamstown, South Africa.

Mtshali, H., Fish, L. & Victor, J.E. 2017. Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/02/02

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Distribution map

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