Scientific Name
Frithia humilis Burgoyne
Higher Classification
Frithia pulchra N.E.Br. var. minor de Boer
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
P.M. Burgoyne, S. Krynauw & L. von Staden
Frithia humilis has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 3285 km², and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 48-128 km². Ten locations are known to remain, and it continues to decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable under criterion B.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Gauteng, Mpumalanga
This species is endemic to South Africa, and occurs between Bronkhorstspruit in eastern Gauteng and Middelburg in western Mpumalanga.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Central Sandy Bushveld, Rand Highveld Grassland, Loskop Mountain Bushveld, Eastern Highveld Grassland
It grows in very shallow soils derived from coarse sediments, which comprises the Irrigasie Formation of the Ecca group.
Frithia humilis has already lost 54% of its habitat to urban and agricultural expansion, and subpopulations persist on small fragments. Habitat loss continues, particularly due to mining and quarrying expansion and urban and industrial development. Remaining habitat is degraded across this species' range, due to overgrazing, alien invasive plants and inappropriate fire management.

This species occurs on small grassland fragments, but is locally abundant in suitable habitat. Field surveys indicate subpopulation sizes vary from 1500 plants to 100 000 plants. There is ongoing habitat loss and degradation at most known locations, and four to seven locations have been lost in the past 30 years, predominantly due to mining and urban expansion.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Frithia humilis BurgoyneVU B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)2020.1
Frithia humilis BurgoyneEN B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Frithia humilis BurgoyneVU B1+2bcdPfab and Victor (2002)
Frithia humilis BurgoyneVulnerable Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Burgoyne, P.M., Smith, G.F. and Du Plessis, F. 2000. Notes on the genus Frithia (Mesembryanthemaceae) and the description of a new species, F. humilis in South Africa. Bothalia 30(1):1-7.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Pfab, M.F. and Victor, J.E. 2002. Threatened plants of Gauteng, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 68:370-375.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Burgoyne, P.M., Krynauw, S. & von Staden, L. 2018. Frithia humilis Burgoyne. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version . Accessed on 2024/06/21

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Distribution map

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