Tulista kingiana

Scientific Name
Tulista kingiana (Poelln.) G.D.Rowley
Higher Classification
Haworthia kingiana Poelln., Haworthia subfasciata (Salm-Dyck) Baker var. kingiana (Poelln.) Poelln., Haworthia zenigata M.Hayashi
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered A2cd+4cd; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
J.H. Vlok, D. Raimondo & L. von Staden
Habitat loss to agricultural expansion, coastal development, as well as collecting of mature individuals from the wild is estimated to have already caused a population reduction of at least 50% within the last 30 years, one generation of this slow-growing, long-lived species, and it is expected to decline by another 30% within the next 30 years. It has a restricted range (EOO 785 km²), and between four and seven small, severely fragmented subpopulations remain.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Mossel Bay to Herbertsdale and Groot Brak River.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Garden Route Granite Fynbos, Groot Brak Dune Strandveld, Mossel Bay Shale Renosterveld
Renosterveld, on slopes of low hills.
This species is declining due to severe past and ongoing habitat loss, as well as collecting of mature individuals from the wild for the specialist succulent trade. Much of its habitat on the coast between Mossel Bay and Groot Brak River was lost to agricultural expansion, and remaining fragments are under pressure from ongoing coastal development. The largest remaining subpopulation is declining due to competition from alien invasive plants and grazing by domestic stock. One of original four subpopulations was destroyed by the construction of the national road.

A range-restricted and very rare species, known from only a few small, scattered subpopulations. One of the largest subpopulations, consisting of around 250 mature individuals, was completely removed and sold to succulent collectors to make way for a coastal housing development. A second subpopulation was also partially destroyed when the national highway was widened. A third subpopulation, consisting of around 200 plants was lost to coastal development in the 1990s. Two small, isolated subpopulations were recently discovered, and this species is currently known from four subpopulations, and could possibly still exist at three more, but surveys are needed to confirm their existence. Based on observations in four subpopulations, the population is estimated to have declined by at least 50% since the 1990s (J.H. Vlok, pers. comm.). It is a long-lived, slow growing species and difficult to cultivate. Due to ongoing pressure on remaining subpopulations - at least two are likely to be lost to development within the near future (next 10 years) as well as ongoing illegal collecting, it is anticipated that the population will decline by another 30% within the next generation (generation length 30 years).

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Tulista kingiana (Poelln.) G.D.RowleyEN A2cd+4cd; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)2014.1
Haworthia zenigata M.HayashiLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)
Haworthia kingiana Poelln.CR A4ac; B1ab(iii,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Haworthia kingiana Poelln.Vulnerable Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Bayer, M.B. 1999. Haworthia Revisited: A revision of the genus. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Bayer, M.B. and Manning, J.C. 2012 (Updated online 2013). The Haworthia nomenclator: A list of accepted species with some guidelines for infraspecific names. Haworthia Update 7(4):30-40.

Craib, C. 1990. Some rare Haworthias in South Africa. Aloe 27:23-26.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Pilbeam, J.W. 1983. Haworthia and Astroloba, a collector's guide. B.T. Batsford Ltd., London.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rowley, G.D. 2013. Generic concepts in the Alooideae. Part 3 - The phylogenetic story. Alsterworthia International Special Issue 10:1-6.

Scott, C.L. 1985. The genus Haworthia, a taxonomic revision. Aloe Books, Johannesburg.

Vlok, J.H., Raimondo, D. & von Staden, L. 2014. Tulista kingiana (Poelln.) G.D.Rowley. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2017.1. Accessed on 2019/03/23

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Distribution map

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