Scientific Name
Romulea sanguinalis Vos
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)
Assessment Date
N.A. Helme & D. van der Colff
This species was last recorded in 1952, and not seen again despite dedicated searches and survey projects. It is possibly extinct, although the reasons for decline are not known. It may also be overlooked, and chances remain that it could still be found.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape
Bokkeveld Escarpment near Nieuwoudtville.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Hantam Karoo
Rocky clay flats.
Unknown, possibly habitat loss to crop cultivation or overgrazing.

This species is known from a single collection, made in 1952, and not recorded again at the type locality or anywhere else on the Bokkeveld Escarpment, despite several dedicated searches (N.A. Helme pers. comm. 2015), as well as survey projects to document the populations of rare and threatened species of the area. Intact habitat still remains, and it is not certain why the population disappeared, and it is possibly overlooked. It is very likely a highly localized species.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Romulea sanguinalis VosCritically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) 2015.1
Romulea sanguinalis VosVU D2Raimondo et al. (2009)
Romulea sanguinalis VosRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Romulea sanguinalis VosRare Hall et al. (1980)

De Vos, M.P. 1972. The genus Romulea in South Africa. Journal of South African Botany Supplement 9:1-307.

De Vos, M.P. 1983. Syringodea, Romulea. In: O.A. Leistner (ed). Flora of Southern Africa 7 Iridaceae, Part 2 Ixioideae, Fascicle 2:1-73. Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Manning, J., Goldblatt, P. and Snijman, D. 2002. The color encyclopedia of Cape bulbs. Timber Press, Portland/Cambridge.

Manning, J.C. and Goldblatt, P. 2001. A synoptic review of Romulea (Iridaceae: Crocoideae) in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra including new species, biological notes, and a new infrageneric classification. Adansonia 23(1):59-108.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Helme, N.A. & van der Colff, D. 2015. Romulea sanguinalis Vos. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/09/23

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Distribution map

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