Scientific Name
Pelargonium caledonicum L.Bolus
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A2ac; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
D. Raimondo & L. von Staden
A population reduction of >80% is inferred based on habitat loss to wheat cultivation within the past 90 years (generation length 30 years). Eight small, severely fragmented subpopulations remain on isolated habitat fragments and continue to decline due to ongoing expansion of wheat cultivation, inappropriate fire management and alien plant invasion. With all subpopulations confined to isolated remnants, this species' AOO is estimated to be <10 km².
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Eastern Ruens Shale Renosterveld, Central Ruens Shale Renosterveld, Western Ruens Shale Renosterveld, Ruens Silcrete Renosterveld, Greyton Shale Fynbos, Elim Ferricrete Fynbos
Renosterveld, on grey loam soils derived from shale.
Very little of this species' renosterveld habitat remains intact after extensive loss to crop cultivation across the Overberg. Remaining fragments continue to be degraded due to spreading alien invasive plants and inappropriate fire management. Around Caledon it is threatened by ongoing habitat loss to infrastructure development.

About eight subpopulations are known to remain. All of these occur on small, isolated renosterveld remnants. The population is therefore considered severely fragmented and continues to decline. This species has lost >80% of its habitat over the past three generations - it is a long-lived species with an estimated generation length of 30 years. A population reduction of >80% is inferred.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Pelargonium caledonicum L.BolusCR A2ac; B1ab(ii,iii,iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Pelargonium caledonicum L.BolusRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Craib, C. 2001. Geophytic Pelargoniums. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Manning, J.C. and Goldblatt, P. 2012. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 1: The Core Cape Flora. Strelitzia 29. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Marais, E.M. 1994. Taxonomic studies in Pelargonium, section Hoarea (Geraniaceae). Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Van der Walt, J.J.A. and Vorster, P.J. 1981. Pelargoniums of southern Africa (Vol. II). Juta, Cape Town.

Raimondo, D. & von Staden, L. 2016. Pelargonium caledonicum L.Bolus. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/02/02

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Distribution map

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