Giant Wild Anemone

Taxonomy
Scientific Name
Anemone fanninii Harv. ex Mast.
Higher Classification
Dicotyledons
Family
RANUNCULACEAE
Common Names
Anemoon (a), Giant Wild Anemone (e), Syblom (a), Umanzamnyama (z)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Near Threatened A2d
Assessment Date
2008/01/15
Assessor(s)
V.L. Williams, D. Raimondo, N.R. Crouch, A.B. Cunningham, C.R. Scott-Shaw, M. Lötter & A.M. Ngwenya
Justification
We estimate an overall decline of 20% in the last 30 years (generation length 10 years) due to harvesting for the traditional medicine trade. There are many areas within its Drakensberg range that are protected and/or inaccessible to harvesters.
Distribution
Endemism
Not endemic to South Africa
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal
Range
Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Free State Drakensberg Mountains and also Lesotho.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Terrestrial
Major habitats
Drakensberg Foothill Moist Grassland, Southern Drakensberg Highland Grassland, Northern Drakensberg Highland Grassland, Drakensberg-Amathole Afromontane Fynbos, uKhahlamba Basalt Grassland, Lesotho Highland Basalt Grassland, Drakensberg Afroalpine Heathland, Basotho Montane Shrubland, Midlands Mistbelt Grassland, Southern KwaZulu-Natal Moist Grassland, East Griqualand Grassland, Moist Coast Hinterland Grassland, Low Escarpment Moist Grassland, Northern KwaZulu-Natal Moist Grassland, Mooi River Highland Grassland, Senqu Montane Shrubland
Description
Moist depressions near streams and along drainage lines and seeps, generally on east-facing slopes from the coast to 2100 m.
Threats
Anemone fanninii is a rhizomatous herb with woody rootstock. The whole plant is harvested and sold for traditional medicine and is used interchangeably with Anemone caffra, with which it shares the common name 'uManzemnyama'. Cunningham (1988) estimated that 227 bags (50kg-size) of uManzemnyama were traded in the Durban region by 54 herb-traders. The species was further classed as 'declining' in KwaZulu-Natal - i.e. a recently widespread species that was likely to become vulnerable and continue to decline if destruction of wild populations continued. Williams (2007) recorded 32% of muthi shops in the Johannesburg region selling either A. fanninii or A. caffra in 1994. Only 5% of the Faraday Street muthi market traders in Johannesburg sold it in 2001 and it was available in small quantities (Williams 2003). At the Medicinal Plant Red List Workshop (14-15/01/2008, SANBI, Durban), the following points were raised about A. fanninii: a) it is protected in the Drakensberg region; b) there are often several hundred individuals in a subpopulation, and these could easily be if the harvesters locate them. There are several places in the Drakensberg where this could happen, mainly in SAPPI areas (Rob Scott-Shaw pers. comm. ); c) the subpopulations are generally not in communal areas and are found in areas that are inaccessible to harvesters, hence protecting the population from huge declines; d) the overall decline was estimated to be about 20% in the last three generations (30 years).
Population
Population trend
Decreasing
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Anemone fanninii Harv. ex Mast.NT A2dRaimondo et al. (2009)
Bibliography

Cunningham, A.B. 1988. An investigation of the herbal medicine trade in Natal/KwaZulu. Investigational Report No. 29. Institute of Natural Resources, Pietermaritzburg.


Pooley, E. 2003. Mountain flowers: a field guide to the flora of the Drakensberg and Lesotho. Natal Flora Publications Trust, Durban.


Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.


Williams, V.L. 2003. Hawkers of health: an investigation of the Faraday Street traditional medicine market in Johannesburg. Report to Gauteng Directorate for Nature Conservation, DACEL.


Williams, V.L. 2007. The design of a risk assessment model to determine the impact of the herbal medicine trade on the Witwatersrand on resources of indigenous plant species. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.


Citation
Williams, V.L., Raimondo, D., Crouch, N.R., Cunningham, A.B., Scott-Shaw, C.R., Lötter, M. & Ngwenya, A.M. 2008. Anemone fanninii Harv. ex Mast. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/02/02

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Distribution map

© C. Stirton

© C. Stirton

© C. Stirton

© A. Matcher

© A. Matcher

© C. Grant


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