Scientific Name
Aloe pruinosa Reynolds
Higher Classification
Common Names
Icena (z), Icena Elikhulu (z), Kleinaalwyn (a), Slangkop (a), Slangkopaalwyn (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v)
Assessment Date
H. Mtshali, J.E. Victor & C.R. Scott-Shaw
Aloe pruinosa is a range-restricted species, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 433 km² and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 60 km². An estimated seven to 10 locations are declining due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation, as well as utilization for traditional medicine.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
This species is endemic to a small area around Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Eastern Valley Bushveld, KwaZulu-Natal Hinterland Thornveld
It occurs in shaded places with heavy loam soils in high rainfall thornveld and valley bushveld.
Although Aloe pruinosa occurs in the Bisley Valley Nature Reserve south of Pietermaritzburg, its continued survival in this area is not guaranteed as urban expansion and industrial development are rapidly encroaching, even on this locality (Van Wyk and Smith 1996). Threatened by agriculture (commercial sugarcane, conversion to pasture and other crops) and forestry between Albert Falls and Wartburg (NLC 1996). Harvesting for medicinal purpose at Maphumulo area have been observed. The whole plants are removed to be sold to traditional chemist shops (Smith and Crouch 1995). .

This species has a very limited distribution range, and is declining due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation across its range. Recent field observations indicate that it is still fairly common to the north and south of Pietermaritzburg, persisting at at least seven locations. Subpopulations are however small and scattered (Scott-Shaw 1999).

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Aloe pruinosa ReynoldsVU B1ab(ii,iii,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Aloe pruinosa ReynoldsVU A1acdeB1B2abceD2Victor (2002)
Aloe pruinosa ReynoldsLower Risk - Near Threatened Scott-Shaw (1999)
Aloe pruinosa ReynoldsRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Aloe pruinosa ReynoldsRare Hall et al. (1980)

Crouch, N., Smith, G. and Myeza, N. 1997. Aloe pruinosa: a rare spotted-leaf aloe from the KwaZulu-Natal midlands. PlantLife 17:30-31.

Glen, H.F. and Hardy, D.S. 2000. Aloaceae (First part): Aloe. In: G. Germishuizen (ed). Flora of Southern Africa 5 Part 1, Fascicle 1:1-159. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Reynolds, G.W. 1936. A revision of Aloe transvaalensis, O. Kuntze, together with descriptions of three new aloes from the Transvaal, one from Natal and a new Leptoaloe from Zululand. Journal of South African Botany 2:113-124.

Reynolds, G.W. 1969. The Aloes of South Africa. A.A. Balkema, Cape Town.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and threatened plants of KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service, Pietermaritzburg.

Smith, G.F. and Crouch, N.R. 1995. Notes on Aloe pruinosa Reyn. (Aloaceae), a rare and little known maculate from the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Aloe 32(3&4):66-69.

Smith, G.F., Crouch, N. and Condy, G. 1999. Aloe pruinosa. Flowering Plants of Africa 56:2-6.

Smith, G.F., Steyn, E.M.A., Victor, J.E., Crouch, N.R., Golding, J.S. and Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. Aloaceae: The conservation status of Aloe in South Africa: an updated synopsis. Bothalia 30(2):206-211.

Van Wyk, B.-E. and Smith, G.F. 2014. Guide to the Aloes of South Africa. (Third ed.). Briza Publications, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Mtshali, H., Victor, J.E. & Scott-Shaw, C.R. 2020. Aloe pruinosa Reynolds. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/12/02

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Distribution map

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