Scientific Name
Diaphananthe millarii (Bolus) H.P.Linder
Higher Classification
Mystacidium millarii Bolus
Common Names
Iphamba (z)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)
Assessment Date
V.L. Williams, N.R. Crouch, A.B. Cunningham, C.R. Scott-Shaw, M. Lötter, A.M. Ngwenya, P.J.H. Hurter, J.E. Victor & N.N. Mhlongo
This species has a limited distribution range, an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 7529 km² and an area of occupancy of 60 km². It is known from less than 10 locations, and the population is declining due to alien plant invasion and illegal collecting for both the horticultural and muthi trades. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable under criterion B.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal
This species is endemic to the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa. It occurs in two disjunct areas: the first being between East London and the Kei River, and the second in the scarp forests in the greater Durban area.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Northern Coastal Forest, Scarp Forest
Plants occur in scarp forests. It is a low-level epiphyte in kloof forests and dry scrub, usually in light shade on the underside of branches (300-700 m). 
Threats include heavy exploitation by orchid collectors, habitat modification as a result of alien plant infestations in its forest habitat, and opportunistic collection for traditional medicine. It has been recorded in both the Durban and Johannesburg traditional medicine markets (Cunningham, 1988; Williams, pers. obs., 2008).

The population is declining due to illegal collecting and encroachment by alien species.

Population trend
It is protected in Krantzkloof Nature Reserve.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Diaphananthe millarii (Bolus) H.P.LinderVU B1ab(iii,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Diaphananthe millarii (Bolus) H.P.LinderEN B1B2abcVictor (2002)
Diaphananthe millarii (Bolus) H.P.LinderEN Scott-Shaw (1999)
Diaphananthe millarii (Bolus) H.P.LinderRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Mystacidium millarii BolusRare Hall et al. (1980)

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Harrison, E.R. 1972. Epiphytic orchids of southern Africa: a field guide to the indigenous species. Natal Branch of the Wildlife Society of Southern Africa, Durban.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Linder, H.P. 1989. Notes on Southern African Angraecoid Orchids. Kew Bulletin 44(2):317-319.

Linder, H.P. 1999. Diaphananthe. In: H.P. Linder and H. Kurzweil (eds.), Orchids of southern Africa (pp. 434-437), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and threatened plants of KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service, Pietermaritzburg.

Singh, Y. and Crouch, N.R. 1997. Diaphananthe millarii: a rare orchid from the Durban and East London surrounds. PlantLife 16(10-11).

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. and Dold, A.P. 2003. Threatened plants of the Albany Centre of Floristic Endemism, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99:437-446.

Williams, V.L., Crouch, N.R., Cunningham, A.B., Scott-Shaw, C.R., Lötter, M., Ngwenya, A.M., Hurter, P.J.H., Victor, J.E. & Mhlongo, N.N. 2022. Diaphananthe millarii (Bolus) H.P.Linder. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version . Accessed on 2024/07/18

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Distribution map

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