Rooi Trewwa

Scientific Name
Satyrium carneum (Dryand.) Sims
Higher Classification
Orchis carnea Dryand.
Common Names
Rooi Trewwa (a), Rooikappie (a), Rooitrewwa (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
L. von Staden
Satyrium carneum is a widespread and common species, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 20 885 km². It is declining across its range, but not yet in danger of extinction, and is therefore listed as Least Concern.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
This species is endemic to South Africa, and is found from Cape Peninsula to Sedgefield.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Overberg Dune Strandveld, Cape Flats Dune Strandveld, Hangklip Sand Fynbos, Hartenbos Dune Thicket, Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, Agulhas Limestone Fynbos, Agulhas Sand Fynbos, Goukamma Dune Thicket, Blombos Strandveld, Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos, Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Albertinia Sand Fynbos, Cape Flats Sand Fynbos, Gamka Valley Thicket
It grows in dune bush vegetation, in fynbos on coastal hills and on ridges on moist to dry sands and limestone, 10-300 m.
Satyrium carneum has lost 22% of its habitat to urban expansion on the Cape Peninsula and Cape Flats, and coastal development between Betty's Bay and Gansbaai, and loss continues. It is threatened by competition from dense infestations of alien invasive plants across its range.

This species is very common along the Cape coast, and recent observations indicate that it still persists in at least 25 locations.

Population trend
It is conserved in Silvermine Nature Reserve, Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve and De Hoop Nature Reserve.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Satyrium carneum (Dryand.) SimsLC 2020.1
Satyrium carneum (Dryand.) SimsNT B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Satyrium carneum (Dryand.) SimsLower Risk - Near Threatened Victor (2002)
Satyrium carneum (Dryand.) SimsIndeterminate Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V. 1982. A revision of the southern African species of Satyrium. Contributions from the Bolus Herbarium 10:1-142.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Johnson, S. and Bytebier, B. 2015. Orchids of South Africa: A field guide. Struik Nature, Cape Town.

Liltved, W.R. and Johnson, S.D. Unpublished. The Cape Orchids - Wild orchids of the Cape Floral Kingdom.

Linder, H.P. and Kurzweil, H. 1999. Orchids of southern Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

von Staden, L. 2018. Satyrium carneum (Dryand.) Sims. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version . Accessed on 2024/07/12

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Distribution map

© C. Merry

© C. Merry

© C. Merry

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© Outramps

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