Scientific Name
Marasmodes dummeri Bolus ex Hutch.
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i)
Assessment Date
D. Raimondo, L. von Staden, I. Ebrahim & A.R. Magee
Marasmodes dummeri is known from only a few collections, and may have been overlooked in the past as plants are cryptic and flower outside of the main fynbos flowering season. Historic collections indicate that this species used to occupy a minimum range of 212 km². It is a lowland renosterveld endemic with a restricted range (current estimate of EOO 128 km²). Its habitat is more than 90% transformed and fragmented due to wheat and vineyard cultivation and urban expansion, and as a result, remaining subpopulations are confined to small fragments of natural vegetation that are burnt infrequently, causing a continuing decline in habitat quality and numbers of mature individuals. There are four remaining subpopulations, with the largest consisting of around 200 mature individuals. It is estimated that the population consists of fewer than 500 mature individuals.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Klipheuwel to Muldersvlei.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Swartland Shale Renosterveld, Swartland Alluvium Fynbos
Seasonally moist alluvial and shale flats.
Habitat loss to crop cultivation and urban expansion has caused the loss of several subpopulations and left remaining plants isolated and fragmented. This species continues to be threatened by ongoing habitat loss as well as too infrequent fire in small fragments.

Marasmodes dummeri is known historically from a small area between Klipheuwel, Kraaifontein and Agter-Paarl. Extensive surveys of remaining lowland fynbos and renosterveld fragments in this area indicate that four small subpopulations remain. The largest, protected in a small provincial nature reserve, consists of about 200 mature individuals. Intact habitat remains at a fifth site near Klipheuwel, where the species was last recorded in 1980. This site has already been repeatedly surveyed in the past 10 years, and the species has not been recorded. It is possibly locally extinct at this site. The remaining population is estimated to consist of less than 500 mature individuals, based on field counts of the four remaining subpopulations. All remaining subpopulations occur on isolated fragments and the population is therefore considered severely fragmented.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Marasmodes dummeri Bolus ex Hutch.EN B1ab(iii,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Marasmodes dummeri Bolus ex Hutch.VU D2Victor (2002)
Marasmodes dummeri Bolus ex Hutch.Indeterminate Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Marasmodes dummeri Bolus ex Hutch.Indeterminate Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V. and Veldhuis, R.N.J. 1985. South Arican red data book: Plants - Fynbos and Karoo biomes. South African National Scientific Programmes Report 117. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Hutchinson, J. 1916. Notes on African Compositae: II. Brachymeris, DC., and Marasmodes, DC. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 1916(7):171-176.

Manning, J.C. and Goldblatt, P. 2012. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 1: The Core Cape Flora. Strelitzia 29. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Ebrahim, I. & Magee, A.R. 2016. Marasmodes dummeri Bolus ex Hutch. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/26

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Distribution map

© R. Koopman

© R. Koopman

© R. Koopman

© C. Paterson-Jones

© I. Ebrahim

© I. Ebrahim

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