Scientific Name
Othonna armiana Van Jaarsv.
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(v)+2ab(v)
Assessment Date
D. Raimondo, L. von Staden & N.N. Mhlongo
This localized habitat specialist is known only from one location. It has an extent of occurrence (EOO) and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 8 km². It is threatened by the collection of wild specimens to supply the succulent trade and many wild plants have been observed for sale on the internet. Overgrazing is an additional threat for this species. It therefore qualifies for listing as Critically Endangered under criterion B.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape
This dwarf succulent species is endemic to the Richtersveld region in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Kahams Mountain Desert
This habitat specialist occur on upper slopes in rock crevices.
The population is declining rapidly as a result of illegal collection with 520 plants included in confiscations between March 2019 and December 2021, many more are likely to have been removed from the wild but not intercepted by law enforcement efforts. Many wild plants of this species have also been observed for sale on the internet. Severe overstocking of livestock in the Richtersveld is causing ongoing degradation, loss of vegetation cover, and species diversity due to overgrazing and trampling. This species' preference for rocky crevices however may offer it some protection against the effects of grazing. Abiotic changes linked to global change are currently being experienced in the Richtersveld and are expected to intensify into the future, with observed temperature change over the past 10 years already reaching those predicted for near future scenarios (2035) (van Wilgen et al. 2016). While this species preference for rocky crevices will afford it some protection from drought, the ongoing trend towards increases in dry spell duration and mean and maximum temperatures in the Richtersveld are likely to cause future declines to the population.

This species was considered to be locally abundant in suitable habitat in the past (Van Jaarsveld, 1986), however, the population is now experiencing rapid decline as a result of illegal trade in wild harvested plants.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Othonna armiana Van Jaarsv.VU D22015.1
Othonna armiana Van Jaarsv.Critically Rare Raimondo et al. (2009)
Othonna armiana Van Jaarsv.Lower Risk - Near Threatened Victor (2002)
Othonna armiana Van Jaarsv.Rare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Snijman, D.A. 2013. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 2: The extra Cape flora. Strelitzia 30. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Van Jaarsveld, E.J. 1986. Othonna armiana (Asteraceae): a new species from the North-western Cape. South African Journal of Botany 52(6):569-571.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L. & Mhlongo, N.N. 2022. Othonna armiana Van Jaarsv. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version . Accessed on 2024/07/12

Comment on this assessment Comment on this assessment
Distribution map

Search for images of Othonna armiana on iNaturalist