Scientific Name
Acmadenia alternifolia Cham.
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv)+2ab(ii,iii,iv)
Assessment Date
D. Raimondo, J.E. Victor & S.L. Hutchinson
EOO 466 km², between five and nine locations and declining due to loss of habitat to housing development, invasive alien plants and too frequent fire.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Knysna to Plettenberg Bay, possibly extending as far as Nature's Valley.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, Garden Route Shale Fynbos, Goukamma Dune Thicket
Coastal headlands and steep slopes, exposed positions on dry coastal cliffs.
Forestry is a past threat around Harkerville. The subpopulation above Stevens Bank in the Harkerville forestry area has declined due to disturbance (quarrying) of the headland. Coastal development is a severe ongoing threat around Plettenberg Bay, especially in the area east of the Keurbooms River. Invasive alien plants are an ongoing threat throughout this species' range.

There has been past population decline due to habitat loss to plantations and urban development. Two of the 11 recorded subpopulations have been lost and the existence of four is uncertain. Data for four subpopulations show that most are small (10-50 mature individuals) while one subpopulation has >1000 individuals.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Acmadenia alternifolia Cham.EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii)2012.1
Acmadenia alternifolia Cham.EN B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Acmadenia alternifolia Cham.VU B1B2bcdVictor (2002)
Acmadenia alternifolia Cham.Rare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Acmadenia alternifolia Cham.Uncertain Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Williams, I. 1982. Studies in the genera of the Diosmeae (Rutaceae): 13. A revision of the genus Acmadenia. Journal of South African Botany 48(2):169-240.

Raimondo, D., Victor, J.E. & Hutchinson, S.L. 2012. Acmadenia alternifolia Cham. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2024/02/23

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© S. Falanga

© Outramps

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