Scientific Name
Acmadenia candida I.Williams
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered D
Assessment Date
A. Johns, C. Paterson-Jones, T. Trinder-Smith, D. Raimondo & S.L. Hutchinson
Formerly thought extinct, but two small subpopulations of fewer than 100 mature individuals in total have been rediscovered. Potentially threatened by too frequent fire, alien pine invasion and trampling by hikers.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Hottentots Holland Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos
Marshy areas, amongst low, dense restios, 1070 m.
Habitat loss to timber plantations may have caused the loss of some subpopulations in the past, but timber plantations are no longer expanding in the Western Cape, but pine seedlings escaping into adjoining natural vegetation and becoming invasive is a potential threat. Too frequent fire is also a potential threat and one subpopulation is right next to a road where it is potentially threatened by trampling and erosion.

Two small subpopulations, consisting of about 40 and 50 plants respectively, have been rediscovered in 2007 and 2008. Plants are not suspected to be declining.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Acmadenia candida I.WilliamsEN DRaimondo et al. (2009)
Acmadenia candida I.WilliamsExtinct Victor (2002)
Acmadenia candida I.WilliamsExtinct Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Williams, I. 1978. Studies in the genera of the Diosmeae (Rutaceae): 7. Journal of South African Botany 44(4):329 - 362.

Johns, A., Paterson-Jones, C., Trinder-Smith, T., Raimondo, D. & Hutchinson, S.L. 2012. Acmadenia candida I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/09/19

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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