Taxonomy
Scientific Name
Lachenalia fistulosa Baker
Higher Classification
Monocotyledons
Family
HYACINTHACEAE
Synonyms
Lachenalia convallariodora Stapf
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
2020/02/27
Assessor(s)
G.D. Duncan & L. von Staden
Justification
Lachenalia fistulosa has a restricted distribution range, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 1139 km², and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 64 km². After extensive habitat loss across its range, it is estimated to remain at seven locations, but possibly still persists at a few more where it was last recorded more than 30 years ago.
Distribution
Endemism
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Range
This species has a disjunct distribution in the Western Cape. It occurs on the northern Cape Peninsula, and in the Hawequas Mountains around Du Toit's Kloof.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Terrestrial
Major habitats
Peninsula Shale Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Renosterveld, Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Boland Granite Fynbos
Description
It occurs on rocky mountain slopes in heavy, stony clay or granitic soils, rarely on sandstone. Mature fruits split open and seeds are dispersed locally by the shaking action of wind. Flowers are pollinated by honey bees. Plants flower profusely following natural wildfires, but flowering decreases rapidly in successive seasons, with plants becoming dormant until the next fire.
Threats
Historically this species declined around Sea Point, Hout Bay, Llandudno, Constantia and Wynberg due to habitat loss to urban expansion. Urban expansion remains a threat to subpopulations outside the Table Mountain National Park. It has also lost habitat to timber plantations around Constantia, Hout Bay and on Devil's Peak in the past, but plantations are no longer expanding. Duncan (2012) noted that this species appear to be able to persist under plantations, but may decline due to long-term fire exclusion. Overall, at least 66% of this species' habitat on the Cape Peninsula is irreversibly modified, and loss continues. Subpopulations in close proximity to plantations are also threatened by competition from alien invasive plants, particularly escaped pine seedlings spreading from plantations into native fynbos vegetation. On the lower western slopes of the Hawequas Mountains it has also declined due to historical habitat loss to timber plantations and erosion. Remaining subpopulations are severely threatened by competition from alien invasive plants.
Population

This species is locally abundant, particularly on the Cape Peninsula, where it is known to occur in large colonies numbering hundreds or even thousands of individuals (Duncan 2012). It has declined to local extinction in areas such as Wynberg and Constantia, and continues to decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. There are an estimated seven remaining locations. Intact habitat still exist at five other locations known through historical records, but the species was last recorded in these areas in the 1940s and 1950s. It may be overlooked due to its short flowering period following fires. At one other location, a tiny urban fragment, it was last recorded in the 1980s. Although the fragment still remains, it is severely threatened by a lack of fire, and will go locally extinct if fire continues to be excluded.


Population trend
Decreasing
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Lachenalia fistulosa BakerLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)
Bibliography

Duncan, G.D. 2012. The genus Lachenalia. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.


Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.


Citation
Duncan, G.D. & von Staden, L. 2020. Lachenalia fistulosa Baker. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2020/08/11

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Distribution map


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