Swartberg Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron barkerae I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Swartberg Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Leucadendron barkerae has a restricted distribution range (Extent of Occurrence 10 374 km²), but the population is large and this species has no significant threats. It is therefore not in danger of extinction.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Leucadendron barkerae is restricted to the mountains of the western Little Karoo, where it occurs from the Langeberg and Kwadousberg above the Koo Valley eastwards to the Great Swartberg around the Swartberg Pass.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
North Hex Sandstone Fynbos, South Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, Matjiesfontein Quartzite Fynbos
This species occurs in arid fynbos bordering on karoo, 600-1800 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and collected by rodents and stored in underground caches, where they are protected from fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
As a reseeder, Leucadendron barkerae is potentially threatened by increases in fire frequency. Recent field observations noted increases in fire frequency in the Swartberg, but this area represents only a small part of this species' range. There are currently no other known significant threats to this species.

This species is known from isolated stands, each with few hundred plants (Rebelo 2001). As there are no severe threats, the population is not suspected to be declining.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron barkerae I.WilliamsLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron barkerae I.WilliamsNot Threatened Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron barkerae I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

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