Pondoland Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron pondoense A.E.van Wyk
Higher Classification
Common Names
Pondoland Conebush (e), Pondo-tolbos (a), Tolbos (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO 425 km ²and AOO 100 km², less than 10 known locations continue to decline as a result of too frequent fire. Other threats include flooding, afforestation, water table depletion by forestry plantations and alien plant invasion.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape
Mnyameni River to Fraser Gorge.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Pondoland-Ugu Sandstone Coastal Sourveld
A fire evader, occurring on shallow, acidic, sandy soils, usually between boulders along gullies and streams where most fires do not penetrate. Largely confined to Pondoland-Natal Sandstone Coastal Sourveld. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive.
Severely threatened by too high fire frequency, and this species is a reseeder that cannot tolerate frequent burning. Flooding caused by vegetation removal upstream also destroys these plants. Reduced water flow as a result of expanding afforestation is diminishing the available habitat.

A Pondoland endemic: from Mnyameni to Sikatsha Rivers - about 40 km range. It is particularly common within about 5 km of the coast along the lower reaches of the Cutweni, Mfihlelo, Mlambomkulu, Lupatana, Mkweni, Daza and Mkambati Rivers (Van Wyk, 1990).

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron pondoense A.E.van WykVU B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron pondoense A.E.van WykVU Scott-Shaw (1999)
Leucadendron pondoense A.E.van WykRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Boon, R. 2010. Pooley's Trees of eastern South Africa. Flora and Fauna Publications Trust, Durban.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and threatened plants of KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service, Pietermaritzburg.

Van Wyk, A. 1990. A new species of Leucadendron (Proteaceae) from Pondoland, with a discussion of its biogeography. South African Journal of Botany 56(4):458-466.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron pondoense A.E.van Wyk. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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