Gideonskop Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron bonum I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Gideonskop Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)c(iv)+2ab(iii,v)c(iv); C2a(i)b; D
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali, D. Raimondo & L. von Staden
Three small, severely fragmented subpopulations are known. Fire-related population fluctuations have been observed. In 2005 there were only six known adult plants, and at present the population is less than 50 mature individuals. The population is estimated to fluctuate between five and 100 plants. It continues to decline due to inappropriate fire management and skewed sex ratios and genetic decline in small subpopulations.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Koue Bokkeveld.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos
It occurs in dry sandy soils among rocky outcrops on flats, 1300-1600 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and dispersed by ants to their underground nests, where they are protected from predation and fire. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
The combination of small subpopulations and skewed male female ratios makes this species extremely vulnerable to local extinctions. Fire-related population fluctuations have been observed, and inappropriate fire management is likely to lead to local extinctions.

This species is known from three subpopulations about 4 km apart. Monitoring during the Protea Atlas Project (1991-2001) recorded fire related population fluctuations. Subpopulations are small, consisting of fewer than 20 mature individuals, and the current population size is less than 300 mature individuals.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron bonum I.WilliamsCR C2a(i)b; DRaimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron bonum I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron bonum I.WilliamsEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H., Raimondo, D. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron bonum I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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