Nieuwoudtville Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron remotum I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Nieuwoudtville Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO 183 km², AOO 97 km², the number of mature individuals at a single location continue to decline due to ongoing habitat loss to rooibos tea and cereal cultivation and fire exclusion on small fragments. Fire-related population fluctuations have been observed. Climate-change models (Bomhard et al. 2005) predict a population reduction of >80% 2025 (generation length 20 years).
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape
Bokkeveld escarpment south of Nieuwoudtville.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Bokkeveld Sandstone Fynbos
Sandy flats, 800-940 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are relased after ripening, and dispersed by ants to their underground nests, where they are protected from predation and fire. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Too-infrequent fire due to fire exclusion management, agriculture (Rooibos tea, cereals), dormant subpopulations likely to be missed in vegetation surveys and EIAs, and global climate change are threats.
Population trend
Like L. meyerianum, and unlike its sister species L. pubescens, this species appears to quickly die out in older veld, resulting in its absence in mature Fynbos. Under a less-stringent fire-protected regime it would probably be quite common.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron remotum I.WilliamsEN A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron remotum I.WilliamsRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron remotum I.WilliamsRare Hall et al. (1980)

Bomhard, B., Richardson, D.M., Donaldson, J.S., Hughes, G.O., Midgley, G.F., Raimondo, D.C., Rebelo, A.G., Rouget, M. and Thuiller, W. 2005. Potential impacts of future land use and climate change on the Red List status of the Proteaceae in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Global Change Biology 11(9):1452-1468.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2009. Leucadendron remotum I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© N.A. Helme

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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