Gifberg Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron roodii E.Phillips
Higher Classification
Leucadendron concinnum R.Br. var. latifolium Meisn.
Common Names
Gifberg Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO 494 km², AOO 148 km², six severely fragmented subpopulations continue to decline due to ongoing habitat loss to crop cultivation and inappropriate fire management. Fire-related fluctuations in number of mature individuals occur in small subpopulations on isolated fragments. Other threats include drought and Phytophthora susceptibility.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Nardouw Sandstone Fynbos, Bokkeveld Sandstone Fynbos
Sandy areas surrounded by very rocky terrain at 600-700 m. Largely confined to Bokkeveld sandstone fynbos. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and collected by rodents and stored in underground caches, where they are protected from fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
At least 27% (calculated using GIS) of the habitat has been lost in past due to expansions of rooibos tea fields and fruit orchards. Too infrequent fires in isolated patches between Rooibos tea fields are causing a decline in the seed bank, affecting the regeneration of plants. Drought-related population mortality (up to 70% of small subpopulations) were recorded in 2000 and this needs to be monitored.

A large portion of its habitat has been converted, with many of the subpopulations existing in strip ploughed fields or adjacent convectional fields. The largest population between Taaibosdam and Ribbokfontein has been fragmented by Rooibos tea fields. No extensive natural fields stands remain. Only a single small subpopulation occurs in the Op de Berg Private Nature Reserve on Matsikammaberg. Only 8 subpopulations are very small and isolated.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron roodii E.PhillipsEN B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron roodii E.PhillipsRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron roodii E.PhillipsEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron roodii E.Phillips. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

Comment on this assessment Comment on this assessment
Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

Search for images of Leucadendron roodii on iNaturalist