Common Sunshine Conebush

Taxonomy
Scientific Name
Leucadendron salignum P.J.Bergius
Higher Classification
Dicotyledons
Family
PROTEACEAE
Synonyms
Leucadendron adscendens R.Br., Leucadendron involucratum Meisn.
Common Names
Common Sunshine Conebush (e), Duineknoppiesbos (a), Geelbos (a), Knopbos (a), Knoppiesbos (a), Knoppiesbossie (a), Perdebos (a), Rooibos (a), Stompieknopbos (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
2019/06/18
Assessor(s)
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Justification
Leucadendron salignum is a widespread and abundant species. It is very long-lived and slow growing, and it has experienced significant habitat loss over the past three generations. There is ongoing, slow population decline, but it is not yet in danger of extinction, and population reduction is not expected to exceed 30%, as most of its remaining habitat is in montane areas unsuited to agriculture or development.
Distribution
Endemism
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Western Cape
Range
Leucadendron salignum is widespread across the Cape Floristic Region, from the Bokkeveld Escarpment near Nieuwoudtville in the Northern Cape to the Sandveld, southwards to the Cape Peninsula, and eastwards as far as the Suurberg and Kouga mountains in the Eastern Cape.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Terrestrial
Major habitats
Garden Route Shale Fynbos, North Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos, Garden Route Granite Fynbos, Kouebokkeveld Shale Fynbos, Suurberg Shale Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Fynbos, Matjiesfontein Shale Fynbos, Swartberg Shale Fynbos, Breede Shale Fynbos, Cape Winelands Shale Fynbos, Elgin Shale Fynbos, Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Montagu Shale Fynbos, Boland Granite Fynbos, Agulhas Limestone Fynbos, De Hoop Limestone Fynbos, Canca Limestone Fynbos, Swartruggens Quartzite Fynbos, Matjiesfontein Quartzite Fynbos, Breede Quartzite Fynbos, Suurberg Quartzite Fynbos, Bokkeveld Sandstone Fynbos, Hawequas Sandstone Fynbos, Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos, Goukamma Dune Thicket, Greyton Shale Fynbos, Knysna Sand Fynbos, Hartenbos Strandveld, Kasouga Dune Thicket, Kouebokkeveld Alluvium Fynbos, Breede Alluvium Fynbos, Swartland Alluvium Fynbos, Northern Inland Shale Band Vegetation, Western Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Central Inland Shale Band Vegetation, Central Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Eastern Inland Shale Band Vegetation, Robertson Granite Fynbos, Swellendam Silcrete Fynbos, South Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos, Southern Cape Dune Fynbos, Leipoldtville Sand Fynbos, Hopefield Sand Fynbos, Atlantis Sand Fynbos, Cape Flats Sand Fynbos, Hangklip Sand Fynbos, Agulhas Sand Fynbos, Breede Sand Fynbos, Albertinia Sand Fynbos, Elim Ferricrete Fynbos, Potberg Ferricrete Fynbos, Eastern Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Langkloof Shale Renosterveld, Overberg Sandstone Fynbos, Ruens Silcrete Renosterveld, Swartland Granite Renosterveld, Kango Limestone Renosterveld, Vanrhynsdorp Shale Renosterveld, Peninsula Shale Renosterveld, Western Ruens Shale Renosterveld, Central Ruens Shale Renosterveld, Eastern Ruens Shale Renosterveld, Mossel Bay Shale Renosterveld, Loerie Conglomerate Fynbos, Uniondale Shale Renosterveld, Kango Conglomerate Fynbos, Baviaanskloof Shale Renosterveld, Humansdorp Shale Renosterveld, Nieuwoudtville Shale Renosterveld, Ceres Shale Renosterveld, Matjiesfontein Shale Renosterveld, Montagu Shale Renosterveld, Breede Shale Renosterveld, Swartland Shale Renosterveld, Saldanha Flats Strandveld, Blombos Strandveld, Groot Brak Dune Strandveld, Swartberg Shale Renosterveld, South Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, Potberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, Graafwater Sandstone Fynbos, Tsitsikamma Sandstone Fynbos, North Rooiberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Rooiberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, Swartland Silcrete Renosterveld, North Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, South Eastern Coastal Thornveld, Kouga Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Grassy Sandstone Fynbos, Algoa Sandstone Fynbos, Olifants Sandstone Fynbos, Nardouw Sandstone Fynbos, Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos, Winterhoek Sandstone Fynbos, Piketberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Hex Sandstone Fynbos, South Hex Sandstone Fynbos, Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, South Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos
Description
It occurs in a wide range of soil types in montane and lowland fynbos and renosterveld, 0-1900 m. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground boles or rootstocks. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
Threats
About 33% of this species' habitat is irreversibly modified, predominantly due to historical loss to urban and agricultural expansion, as well as commercial timber plantations. Loss continues in lowland areas, and if recent rates of habitat loss is projected into the future, could reach 35-40% in three generations, as this species is very long-lived. Such projections may however not be realistic, as the rate of habitat loss is much lower in montane areas than in the lowlands. Most natural vegetation outside protected areas in the lowlands are already lost, and remaining subpopulations are small and fragmented, while those in the mountains are extensive, and not currently declining. As this species is a very long-lived resprouter, it is somewhat resilient to habitat degradation, such as caused by overgrazing, inappropriate fire management, and alien invasive plants.
Population

Leucadendron salignum is one of the most widespread and abundant species in the Proteaceae family. Subpopulations in montane regions are extensive, often numbering more than 10 000 individuals. Subpopulations in lowland areas are smaller and more fragmented, but still numerous, as the species is able to persist in severely degraded habitats. It is extremely long-lived (generation length 50-100 years), and due to its longevity, a population reduction of 20-30% could be inferred from 33% habitat loss over the past three generations. There is an ongoing, slow decline of lowland subpopulations due to habitat loss, but since the majority of this species' remaining habitat is in protected montane areas, it is unlikely to decline by more than 30% in three generations.


Population trend
Decreasing
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron salignum P.J.BergiusLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)
Bibliography

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.


Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.


Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.


Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.


Citation
Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron salignum P.J.Bergius. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/09/23

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© D. Turner


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