Kammanassie Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron singulare I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Kammanassie Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable A3c+4c; D2
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Current EOO 63 km², less than five known locations are potentially threatened by fire break clearing and too frequent fire. Climate change models (Bomhard et al. 2005) predict a population reduction of >30% by 2025 (generation length 20 years).
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Kammanassie Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
South Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, North Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos
Crevices along rocky mountain summits, 200-2150 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are relased after ripening, and dispersed by ants to their underground nests, where they are protected from predation and fire. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Habitat degradation, Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron singulare I.WilliamsVU A3c+4c; D2Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron singulare I.WilliamsRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron singulare I.WilliamsRare Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron singulare I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

Comment on this assessment Comment on this assessment
Distribution map

© D. Turner

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

Search for images of Leucadendron singulare on iNaturalist