Graafwater Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron brunioides Meisn. var. flumenlupinum I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Graafwater Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A3c+4c
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
At least 55% of this taxon's habitat is already transformed, and it occurs in an area where irrigated crop cultivation is currently rapidly expanding, and a population reduction of >80% is expected to occur within the next 20 years (generation length 20 years). Climate change models furthermore estimate that this species will be extinct by 2025 (Bomhard et al. 2005). Other threats include alien plant invasion, groundwater extraction and eutrophication.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Graafwater to Aurora and Eendekuil.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Saldanha Flats Strandveld, Graafwater Sandstone Fynbos, Hopefield Sand Fynbos, Leipoldtville Sand Fynbos
Dry montane fynbos in moist habitats such as seeps and river courses on sandy alluvium or sandstone-derived soils. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground boles or rootstocks. Wind-dispersed seeds are released after ripening, and is stored in surface leaf-litter. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species), Habitat loss, Habitat degradation
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron brunioides Meisn. var. flumenlupinum I.WilliamsCR A3c+4cRaimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron brunioides Meisn. var. flumenlupinum I.WilliamsRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron brunioides Meisn. var. flumenlupinum I.WilliamsRare Hall et al. (1980)

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron brunioides Meisn. var. flumenlupinum I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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