Fragrant Spear-leaf Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron spissifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams subsp. fragrans I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Fragrant Spear-leaf Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
This taxon has a restricted range (EOO 12 180 km²), and although it is threatened in parts of its range, it is still fairly common and not yet in danger of extinction.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Langeberg and Outeniqua mountains from Gysmanshoek to Woodville Forest Reserve, also occurring on the Swartberg, Kammanassie mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Kango Conglomerate Fynbos, Kouga Sandstone Fynbos, South Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, South Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, Tsitsikamma Sandstone Fynbos, South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, North Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos
Summit and south-facing slopes, in sandstone soils, 500-1800 m. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground boles or rootstocks. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
This taxon's habitat has been transformed by afforestation and vineyards. There is ongoing habitat degradation due to competition from alien invasive species, too irregular fires and trampling by grazing livestock.
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron spissifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams subsp. fragrans I.WilliamsLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron spissifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams subsp. fragrans I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

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