Agulhas Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron stelligerum I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Agulhas Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A3c+4c
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
The population is estimated to have already been reduced by >50%, based on 58% habitat loss, mainly to crop cultivation in the past 40-60 years. 52% of remaining subpopulations are confined to road verges, where they are extremely vulnerable to verge clearing practices such as herbiciding or mowing. Climate change models (Bomhard et al. 2005) furthermore predict a population reduction of >80% by 2025 (generation length 20 years).
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Elim to Agulhas Plain.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Elim Ferricrete Fynbos
Largely confined to Elim Ferricrete Fynbos. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss, Habitat degradation, Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron stelligerum I.WilliamsCR A3c+4cRaimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron stelligerum I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron stelligerum I.WilliamsVulnerable Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron stelligerum I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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