Peninsula Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron strobilinum (L.) Druce
Higher Classification
Leucadendron concolor R.Br., Leucadendron saxatile T.M.Salter, Leucadendron squarrosum R.Br.
Common Names
Bergroos (a), Mountain Rose (e), Peninsula Conebush (e), Rock Conebush (e), Rots-tolbos (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable D2
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO 134 km², AOO <100 km², 4 locations are potentially threatened by inappropriate fire management, fire break clearing and alien pine invasion. This is a slow-growing, late maturing species that occur only in small subpopulations. One known subpopulation cannot be relocated and is possibly extinct, but the population is stable at present.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Cape Peninsula.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos
Mainly associated with margins of Afromontane forest patches or other relatively fire-safe habitats that do not burn in every fire cycle. Largely confined to Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
Although the species is found in areas where fires do not penetrate, it is still threatened by high frequency of fires. Constantiaberg subpopulation is regularly cleared around the radio masts to protect infrastructure from fires. Late maturation and small subpopulation size is the biggest threat to this species. Escaping pine seedlings are invading the habitat. A few populations adjacent forests have become moribund due to fire protection.

This is a slow maturer and is largely confined to fire-infrequent habitats. Opinions about subpopulation declines are based on this, and its association with forest precursors, but appear largely unjustified. Nevertheless the loss of the extinct Slangkop subpopulation is attributed to too frequent fires. The Constantiaberg subpopulation is regularly cleared around the radio masts to protect infrastructure from fires.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron strobilinum (L.) DruceNT D2Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron strobilinum (L.) DruceRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Helme, N.A. and Trinder-Smith, T.H. 2006. The endemic flora of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 72(2):205-210.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron strobilinum (L.) Druce. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/12/04

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Distribution map

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