Malmesbury Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron thymifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Malmesbury Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A2c+3c+4c; B1b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO 65 km², most subpopulations are now confined to road verges after most of this species' habitat has been transformed by urban expansion, agricultural expansion and alien plant invasion. It continues to decline and fire-related population fluctuations have been observed. Climate change models predict that this species will be extinct by 2025 (Bomhard et al. 2005).
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Dassenberg to Klipheuwel.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Swartland Shale Renosterveld, Swartland Granite Renosterveld, Swartland Silcrete Renosterveld, Cape Flats Sand Fynbos, Atlantis Sand Fynbos
Sandy or gravelly soils over clay. Appears to thrive in seasonally damp areas along road verges, provided that they are not mown or cleared. Able to recruit in the absence of fire. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and is stored in surface leaf-litter. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Habitat loss, Habitat degradation, Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species), Intrinsic Factors
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron thymifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.WilliamsCR A2c+3c+4c; B1b(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron thymifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron thymifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.WilliamsEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron thymifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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