Klapmuts Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron verticillatum (Thunb.) Meisn.
Higher Classification
Leucadendron cinereum R.Br. (in part), excluding synonym
Common Names
Klapmuts Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A2c; B1b(i,ii,iii,iv)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
A population reduction of >80% is estimated based on the local extinction of 74% of subpopulations known through herbarium records by 1992, and an observed further reduction of 30% since 1992 (generation length 20 years). Reasons for decline include habitat loss to crop cultivation, urban expansion and alien plant invasion, road verge clearing, lack of fire in isolated fragments and overgrazing. EOO 30 km², habitat loss and population decline is continuing and fire-related population fluctuations have been observed.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Cape Flats between Hercules Pillar, Muldersvlei and Fisantekraal.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Swartland Shale Renosterveld, Swartland Granite Renosterveld, Swartland Alluvium Fynbos
Shale and silts in lowland fynbos. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss, Habitat degradation
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron verticillatum (Thunb.) Meisn.CR A2c; B1b(i,ii,iii,iv)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron verticillatum (Thunb.) Meisn.Endangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron verticillatum (Thunb.) Meisn.Endangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron verticillatum (Thunb.) Meisn. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/09/19

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Distribution map

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