Pakhuis Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron concavum I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Pakhuis Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, D. Raimondo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
An endemic species to the Pakhuis Mountains of the Western Cape, Extent of Occurrence (28 - 66 km²), area of occupancy (AOO (52-56 km²), the entire range of this species occurs within the Cederberg Wilderness Area. This species has seeds that are stored in rodent caches, and given its limited range extreme fluctuations of the population in response to fire season, temperature and post fire climatic conditions are inferred. This species therefore qualifies as Endangered under criterion B.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Pakhuis Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos
This species occurs in sandy plateaus, 1000 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and collected by rodents and stored in underground caches, where they are protected from fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants. Restricted range species with rodent cached seed exhibit extreme fluctuations in response to fire season, temperature and post fire climate.
This species occurs within the Cederberg Wilderness area and is protected, the only potential threat it faces is too frequent fire.

This species occurs as two subpopulations on either side of the Pakhuis Pass, separated from one another by 1.5 kilometres. Each subpopulations has over 1000 plants and numbers have remained relatively stable since monitoring began in 1993. A third subpopulation may exist as there is an old herbarium collection from Ezelbank collected in 1929, this record is 24 km south east of the other two subpopulations. As this species was not been recollected despite extensive sampling in this area during the Protea Atlas Project (1992 - 2002) it is uncertain if the species still occurs at Ezelbank.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron concavum I.WilliamsEN B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron concavum I.WilliamsRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron concavum I.WilliamsRare Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Raimondo, D., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron concavum I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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