Dune Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron coniferum (L.) Meisn.
Higher Classification
Leucadendron inflexum Link (in part), Leucadendron sabulosum T.M.Salter
Common Names
Duin-geelbos (a), Dune Conebush (e), Dune Yellowbush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
A past population reduction of 30% is estimated based on a 33% reduction in range size and 31% habitat loss to urban and coastal development, crop cultivation and alien plant invasion in the past 60 years (generation length 20 years). Land transformation and climate change models predict a further 50% population reduction by 2025 (Bomhard et al. 2005), but the species is resilient to fragmentation, and decline due to expansion of alien invasive plants is unlikely to be significant if current management programmes are maintained. A population reduction of 30% is however likely within the next 20 years due to climate change and ongoing habitat loss to urban and coastal development.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Cape Peninsula to Soetanysberg.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Overberg Dune Strandveld, Cape Flats Dune Strandveld, Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, Overberg Sandstone Fynbos, Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos, De Hoop Limestone Fynbos, Agulhas Limestone Fynbos, Albertinia Sand Fynbos, Agulhas Sand Fynbos, Hangklip Sand Fynbos
Sand fynbos on the lowlands, bordering on strandveld in some situations. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with wind-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Habitat loss, Habitat degradation, Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species), Harvesting [gathering]
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron coniferum (L.) Meisn.VU A2c+3c+4cRaimondo et al. (2009)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron coniferum (L.) Meisn. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© R.C. Turner

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