Elim Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. elimense
Higher Classification
Common Names
Elim Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered A2c
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
A population reduction of 50% is estimated based on 51% habitat loss, mainly to crop cultivation, in the past 60 years (generation length 20 years). Remaining subpopulations are confined to road verges and small fragments among agricultural fields. It continues to decline due to habitat loss to agriculture, alien plant invasion and overgrazing. It is also threatened by wild flower harvesting, inappropriate fire management, mining and mowing. In 2000 and 2001 large-scale (up to 90%), apparently drought-related, local mortality was observed in some subpopulations.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Overberg Sandstone Fynbos, Elim Ferricrete Fynbos, Agulhas Sand Fynbos
Most prominent in Elim Ferricrete Fynbos, in shallow soil that overlies ironstone gravel and prefers heavy soils in wet areas, ± 150 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and is stored in surface leaf-litter. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss, Habitat degradation, Intrinsic Factors, Natural disasters
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. elimense EN A2cRaimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. elimense Vulnerable Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. elimenseEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. elimense. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© R.C. Turner

© R.C. Turner

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