Caledon Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. salteri I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Caledon Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
AOO<9 km², fire-related fluctuations in number of mature individuals occur in four small, severely fragmented subpopulations. It continues to decline due to alien plant invasion, ongoing habitat loss to agriculture, and wild flower harvesting. Most subpopulations are on isolated fragments among crop fields and none are formally conserved.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Bot River Valley, Hemel en Aarde Valley and Shaw's Pass.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Ruens Silcrete Renosterveld, Elim Ferricrete Fynbos
Silcrete and shale fynbos in the lowlands. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and is stored in surface leaf-litter. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss, Habitat degradation
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. salteri I.WilliamsCR B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. salteri I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. salteri I.WilliamsVulnerable Hall et al. (1980)

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. salteri I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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