Vyeboom Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. vyeboomense I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Vyeboom Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO 12 km², fire-related fluctuations in number of mature individuals occur in one to two small subpopulations at a single location. It continues to decline due to ongoing habitat loss to crop cultivation, alien plant invasion and urban expansion. It is also threatened by too infrequent fire and drought.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Viljoen's Pass to Theewaterskloof Dam.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Elgin Shale Fynbos
Elgin shale fynbos. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and is stored in surface leaf-litter. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Agriculture (fruit), alien invasive species (Hakea and Pinus), dams (large reservoirs), urban expansion (fruit packing sheds and school), too-infrequent fire in isolated remnants, and drought-related mortality events threaten this subspecies.

Thought to be extinct in 1972 (Williams, 1972). Some 50 plants were known in a small area (details not specified) in 1978, but were thought to have been extirpated by a fire in 1981 (Hall 1982). However it was not listed as extinct as the site was still intact and 50 years had not expired. (Hall and Veldhuis 1985). Seeds had been collected in 1978 (Hall and Veldhuis 1985), but it is unknown whether or not they were used to help re-establish the species as proposed.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. vyeboomense I.WilliamsCR B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. vyeboomense I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. vyeboomense I.WilliamsEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron elimense E.Phillips subsp. vyeboomense I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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