Gum-leaved Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron eucalyptifolium H.Buek ex Meisn.
Higher Classification
Leucadendron salignum P.J.Bergius var. longifolium Meisn.
Common Names
Geelbos (a), Groot-geelbos (a), Gum-leaved Conebush (e), Tall Yellowbush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Leucadendron eucalyptifolium is a widespread and very common species. Although there are ongoing threats to coastal subpopulations, it is not yet in danger of extinction.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Western Cape
Leucadendron eucalyptifolium is widespread across the mountains and coastal plains of the southern Cape, where it occurs from the Riviersonderend Mountains in the Western Cape, to Kouga Mountains in the Eastern Cape, and on the coastal plains from Potberg to Tsitsikamma.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
North Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, Hartenbos Strandveld, Swellendam Silcrete Fynbos, Knysna Sand Fynbos, Albertinia Sand Fynbos, De Hoop Limestone Fynbos, Canca Limestone Fynbos, Breede Quartzite Fynbos, North Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos, South Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, Goukamma Dune Thicket, Potberg Sandstone Fynbos, Southern Afrotemperate Forest, South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, Tsitsikamma Sandstone Fynbos, North Rooiberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Rooiberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Grassy Sandstone Fynbos, Algoa Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos
This species occurs in sandy soils in montane and lowland fynbos, often at forest margins, 0-1700 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
About 16% of this species' habitat is already irreversibly modified, predominantly due to loss to coastal development and timber plantations. Habitat loss continues, causing slow, sporadic decline. Climate change and habitat loss modelling predicted that this species could decline by at least 30% by 2020 (Bomhard et al. 2005), but such drastic population reductions has not yet occurred. Recent field observations indicate that alien invasive plants are spreading into this species' habitat in the Outeniqua and Tsitsikamma mountains. Parts of the coastal plain between Potberg and Tsitsikamma is also densely infested with alien invasive plants that are outcompeting native species.

Leucadendron eucalyptifolium is an abundant species, frequently encountered in dense, extensive stands across its range (Rebelo 2001).

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron eucalyptifolium H.Buek ex Meisn.Least Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Bomhard, B., Richardson, D.M., Donaldson, J.S., Hughes, G.O., Midgley, G.F., Raimondo, D.C., Rebelo, A.G., Rouget, M. and Thuiller, W. 2005. Potential impacts of future land use and climate change on the Red List status of the Proteaceae in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Global Change Biology 11(9):1452-1468.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron eucalyptifolium H.Buek ex Meisn. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/07/06

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Distribution map

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© Outramps

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