Worcester Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron flexuosum I.Williams
Higher Classification
Common Names
Worcester Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO and AOO 12 km², about 400-500 plants at a single known location continue to decline due to expanding agriculture, alien plant invasion, overgrazing, clearing and mowing of road verges and inappropriate fire management.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Breede River Valley near Worcester.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Breede Quartzite Fynbos, Breede Sand Fynbos, Breede Alluvium Fynbos
This species occurs in alluvial flats with deep soils containing a high proportion of water-worn stones. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from an underground rootstock. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Habitat loss, Habitat degradation
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron flexuosum I.WilliamsCR B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron flexuosum I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron flexuosum I.WilliamsEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 1980 - unpublished. Taxonomic revision of the genus Lonchostoma.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron flexuosum I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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