Linear-leaf Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron album (Thunb.) Fourc.
Higher Classification
Leucadendron aurantiacum H.Buek ex Meisn., Leucadendron proteoides E.Phillips & Hutch.
Common Names
Linear-leaf Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Leucadendron album is widespread, common and not in danger of extinction.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Western Cape
Leucadendron album occurs in the Swartberg, Langeberg, Outeniqua, Tsitsikamma, Kouga, Groot Winterhoek and Baviaanskloof mountain ranges between Swellendam and Uitenhage.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Swartberg Altimontane Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Grassy Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Sandstone Fynbos, South Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, North Kammanassie Sandstone Fynbos, South Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Rooiberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Rooiberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, Matjiesfontein Quartzite Fynbos
This species occurs on well-drained sandstone slopes in montane fynbos, 800-2000 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
Most of this species' habitat is in the protected areas, and there is no significant ongoing habitat loss. As a reseeder, this species is however potentially vulnerable to inappropriate fire management, particularly increases in fire frequency associated with climate change-related droughts. Recent field observations noted alien invasive plants present in the habitat of several subpopulations. These could outcompete native species in future if left unmanaged.

Leucadendron album is a locally abundant species, that form dense stands (Rebelo 2001). As there are no severe threats to this species, the population is not suspected to be declining.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron album (Thunb.) Fourc.Least Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron album (Thunb.) Fourc. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/07/05

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© S. Falanga

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© J.H. Vlok/A.L. Schutte-Vlok

© Outramps

© Outramps

© I. Ebrahim

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