Grabouw Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron globosum (Kenn. ex Andrews) I.Williams
Higher Classification
Leucadendron ovale R.Br.
Common Names
Grabouw Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A2c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
A population reduction of >80% is estimated based on a 94% reduction in range size (EOO) and 89% habitat loss, mainly to crop cultivation, alien plant invasion and forestry plantations in the past 60 years (generation length 20 years). EOO 55 km², fire-related fluctuations in number of mature individuals occur in four small, severely fragmented subpopulations. The population, consisting of about 180 mature individuals at present, continue to decline due to ongoing habitat loss and fire exclusion. Dormant subpopulations are easily overlooked in surveys.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Elgin Valley.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Elgin Shale Fynbos
Loamy soils on steep, south-facing slopes, 220-300 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and is stored in surface leaf-litter. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Habitat loss, Habitat degradation, Changes in native species dynamics
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron globosum (Kenn. ex Andrews) I.WilliamsCR A2c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron globosum (Kenn. ex Andrews) I.WilliamsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron globosum (Kenn. ex Andrews) I.WilliamsVulnerable Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron globosum (Kenn. ex Andrews) I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

© I. Ebrahim

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