Red-edge Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron arcuatum (Lam.) I.Williams
Higher Classification
Leucadendron crassifolium R.Br., Leucadendron crassulaefolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams, Leucadendron spathulatum R.Br.
Common Names
Red-edge Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Leucadendron arcuatum is a range-restricted species, with an Extent of Occurrence of 7108 km². Its habitat is mostly protected, and it has few significant threats. The population is large, and not suspected to be declining, and therefore this species is not in danger of extinction.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Leucadendron arcuatum is endemic to a small area in the mountains of the Western Cape, from the Cederberg southwards to the Groot Winterhoek and Hex River mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
North Hex Sandstone Fynbos, Winterhoek Sandstone Fynbos, Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos, Olifants Sandstone Fynbos, Hawequas Sandstone Fynbos
This species prefers stony sandstone soils in montane fynbos, 300-1900 m. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground boles or rootstocks. Seeds are released after ripening, and dispersed by ants to their underground nests, where they are protected from predation and fire. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
Most of this species' habitat is protected, and there are few significant threats to the population. A very small proportion (6%) of its habitat was lost to timber plantations in the past, but this threat has ceased as plantations are no longer expanding. Subpopulations near plantations are potentially threatened by competition from escaped pine seedlings if these are not managed.

This species typically occurs in isolated patches of a few scattered plants, but subpopulations can be extensive, consisting of several thousand individuals.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron arcuatum (Lam.) I.WilliamsLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron arcuatum (Lam.) I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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