Cape Flats Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron levisanus (L.) P.J.Bergius
Higher Classification
Common Names
Cape Flats Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A4c
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
An estimated population reduction of >70% has already occurred due to extensive habitat loss in the past 40 years (generation length 20 years) and this species continues to decline rapidly, even in conservation areas, primarily due to inappropriate fire management and unmanaged alien plant invasion. Land transformation models indicate that habitat loss will exceed 80% by 2025 (Bomhard et al. 2005). Other threats include urban expansion, power line and road verge clearing, groundwater extraction, harvesting for firewood, habitat degradation and pollution and mole rat disturbance.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Mamre to Cape Flats.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Hangklip Sand Fynbos, Cape Flats Sand Fynbos, Atlantis Sand Fynbos
Damp sandy soils on flats, 0-100 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species), Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss, Habitat degradation, Changes in native species dynamics
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron levisanus (L.) P.J.BergiusCR A4cRaimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron levisanus (L.) P.J.BergiusEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron levisanus (L.) P.J.BergiusEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron levisanus (L.) P.J.Bergius. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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