Green-flower Sunbush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron loranthifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams
Higher Classification
Leucadendron pearsonii E.Phillips, Leucadendron pseudospathulatum E.Phillips & Hutch.
Common Names
Botterknoppie (a), Botterpitjie (a), Green-flower Sunbush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Near Threatened B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Leucadendron loranthifolium has a wide range (EOO 12892km², AOO 1104 km²), 28% of the species' habitat has already been transformed by rapidly expanding rooibos tea and potato cultivation, and it continues to decline, but more locations remain.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Gifberg to Hex River Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Piketberg Sandstone Fynbos, Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos, Nardouw Sandstone Fynbos, Olifants Sandstone Fynbos, Graafwater Sandstone Fynbos, Bokkeveld Sandstone Fynbos, Swartruggens Quartzite Fynbos, Hopefield Sand Fynbos, Leipoldtville Sand Fynbos, Breede Alluvium Fynbos
This species occurs in sandy or stony sandstone soils, 50-1400 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are released after ripening, and collected by rodents and stored in underground caches, where they are protected from fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
Habitat loss to rooibos tea plantations and vineyards is the main threat to this species throughout its range, where it continues to decline due to expanding agriculture. The remaining isolated remnants are continuously degraded by lack of fire, and due to ground water abstraction.
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron loranthifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.WilliamsNT B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)Raimondo et al. (2009)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron loranthifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I.Williams. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/01/23

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Distribution map

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