Acacia-leaf Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron macowanii E.Phillips
Higher Classification
Common Names
Acacia-leaf Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
EOO and AOO 9 km², one small subpopulation at one location remain, the only other known wild subpopulation is now locally extinct due to urban expansion. Extreme fire-related fluctuations in number of mature individuals have been observed in the population between 1973 and 2005. Other threats include vineyard expansion, alien plant invasion, inappropriate fire management, alien clearing (it tends to be mistaken for Acacia cyclops), predation, overgrazing and hybridization. Attempts have been made to introduce more subpopulations on the Cape Peninsula and near Hermanus, but these have proven not to be viable.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Cape Peninsula.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Cape Flats Dune Strandveld, Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, Hangklip Sand Fynbos
Damp sands near streams, 60-200 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with wind-pollinated male and female flowers occuring on separate plants.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Habitat degradation, Changes in native species dynamics, Natural disasters, Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron macowanii E.PhillipsCR B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucadendron macowanii E.PhillipsEndangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucadendron macowanii E.PhillipsEndangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Helme, N.A. and Trinder-Smith, T.H. 2006. The endemic flora of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 72(2):205-210.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucadendron macowanii E.Phillips. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/12/01

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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