Silver-leaf Wheel Pincushion

Scientific Name
Leucospermum formosum (Andrews) Sweet
Higher Classification
Common Names
Silver-leaf Wheel Pincushion (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered A3c+4c; B1ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)+2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Three out of six known subpopulations are already extinct, and climate change models (Bomhard et al. 2005) predict a further population reduction of at least 50% by 2025 (generation length 20 years). EOO 2689 km², AOO 57 km², fire-related fluctuations in number of mature individuals occur in small, severely fragmented subpopulations, and habitat and number of mature individuals continue to decline due to urban expansion, afforestation, too frequent fire and wild flower harvesting. Dormant subpopulations are easily overlooked in surveys.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Riviersonderend to Outeniqua Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos
Sandstone fynbos, usually on wet south-facing slopes. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are relased after ripening, and dispersed by ants to their underground nests, where they are protected from predation and fire. It is pollinated by birds.
Invasive Alien Species (direct effects), Harvesting [gathering], Habitat loss, Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species), Habitat degradation, Intrinsic Factors
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucospermum formosum (Andrews) SweetEN A3c+4c; B1ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)+2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Leucospermum formosum (Andrews) SweetVulnerable Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Leucospermum formosum (Andrews) SweetRare Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Leucospermum formosum (Andrews) Sweet. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/02/28

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© C. Paterson-Jones

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