Cederberg Pincushion

Taxonomy
Scientific Name
Leucospermum spathulatum R.Br.
Higher Classification
Dicotyledons
Family
PROTEACEAE
Synonyms
Leucospermum cereris Compton
Common Names
Cederberg Pincushion (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Near Threatened A3c+4c
Assessment Date
2011/06/14
Assessor(s)
A.G. Rebelo, N.A. Helme, P.M. Holmes, C.N. Forshaw, S.H. Richardson, D. Raimondo, D.I.W. Euston-Brown, J.E. Victor, W. Foden, I. Ebrahim, B. Bomhard, E.G.H. Oliver, A. Johns, J. van der Venter, R. van der Walt, C. von Witt, A.B. Low, C. Paterson-Jones, J.P. Rourke, A.N. Hitchcock, L. Potter, J.H. Vlok & D. Pillay
Justification
A high altitude species with many small subpopulations that is not threatened at present. Climate change models however predict significant population reductions by 2025 (Bomhard et al. 2005). Generation length 20 years.
Distribution
Endemism
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Range
Cederberg to Koue Bokkeveld, and Kwadousberg near Worcester.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Terrestrial
Major habitats
Fynbos
Description
Largely confined to Cederberg sandstone fynbos.
Threats
Subpopulations are generally small and isolated, but not currently threatened, although too frequent fires is a potential concern. Climate change modelling however forecast severe population reductions (Bomhard et al. 2005), and this species is classified as Near Threatened on a precautionary basis. This species requires monitoring.
Population
Population trend
Decreasing
Notes
Modelled as a single taxon, this species had the highest recorded jump for climate-change models: from LC to CR (Bomhard et al. 2005). This affected the southern subpopulations most and the Keerom subspecies would become EX. Changes in the distribution of the Cedarberg subspecies suggest that it too would have a higher Red Data List status. Taxonomy: Rourke (1972) did not mention any taxonomic differences between the two subpopulations, although the Keerom location was known only from a single specimen at the time. The status of the two forms should be investigated further now that sufficient locations of the Keerom form are known. Subspecific Status: The Cedarberg subspecies is NT. The Keerom subspecies is EN. Keerom form Keerom Pincushion Global Status: EN B1a(i,ii)c(iv), B2a(i,ii)c(iv) and D, based on an occurrence of 51 km², an occupancy of 17 km², 4 isolated subpopulations, a total world population estimated at less than 200 plants, and fire-related population fluctuations. With a decline ratio of 3.0, this species is significantly more transformed in its habitat than suggested by the general vegetation, but this is barely of significance at 3% by occupancy. Modelled as a single taxon, this species had the highest recorded jump for climate-change models: from LC to CR, with these subpopulations totally eliminated (Bomhard et al. 2005) and therefore predicted to be EX by 2025. Ls spathulatum R.Br. Cedarberg form Cedarberg Pincushion Global Status: NT A4c, based on climate models. A high altitude species with many small subpopulations. Climate-change models suggest that the species will increase in status to CR by 2025, but as the Cedarberg form was not modelled separately, its future status is uncertain (Bomhard et al. 2005). It should be monitored nevertheless.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucospermum spathulatum R.Br.NT A3c+4cRaimondo et al. (2009)
Bibliography

Bomhard, B., Richardson, D.M., Donaldson, J.S., Hughes, G.O., Midgley, G.F., Raimondo, D.C., Rebelo, A.G., Rouget, M. and Thuiller, W. 2005. Potential impacts of future land use and climate change on the Red List status of the Proteaceae in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Global Change Biology 11(9):1452-1468.


Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.


Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.


Rourke, J.P. 1972. Taxonomic studies on Leucospermum R.Br. Journal of South African Botany Supplement 8:1-194.


Vlok, J. and Schutte-Vlok, A.L. 2010. Plants of the Klein Karoo. Umdaus Press, Hatfield.


Citation
Rebelo, A.G., Helme, N.A., Holmes, P.M., Forshaw, C.N., Richardson, S.H., Raimondo, D., Euston-Brown, D.I.W., Victor, J.E., Foden, W., Ebrahim, I., Bomhard, B., Oliver, E.G.H., Johns, A., van der Venter, J., van der Walt, R., von Witt, C., Low, A.B., Paterson-Jones, C., Rourke, J.P., Hitchcock, A.N., Potter, L., Vlok, J.H. & Pillay, D. 2011. Leucospermum spathulatum R.Br. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2017.1. Accessed on 2018/11/21

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